ubuntu20.04上使用kubeadm初始化单机k8s笔记

前言

个人测试学习 测试使用的k8s集群 部署方案 大致有三种 minikube microk8s kubeadm
前两种 略过
kubeadm 是k8s官方提供的安装部署工具 能够很简单的搭建管理 单体、或者HA的k8s集群

示例

环境:

  • ubuntu20.04

参考文档:
https://kubernetes.io/zh/docs/reference/setup-tools/kubeadm/kubeadm/
https://www.kubernetes.org.cn/7189.html
https://blog.csdn.net/l1028386804/article/details/105904557

调整配置
  • 关闭swap
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#关闭
swapoff -a
# 删除 swap行
cat /etc/fstab
  • 配置docker加速

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    sudo mkdir -p /etc/docker
    sudo tee /etc/docker/daemon.json <<-'EOF'
    {
    "registry-mirrors": ["https://7vm1yv9c.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
    }
    EOF
  • 配置内核参数

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    cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf <<EOF
    net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
    net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
    EOF
    # 生效
    sysctl --system
安装kubectl kubelet kubeadm
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sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y ca-certificates curl software-properties-common apt-transport-https curl
curl -s https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/apt/doc/apt-key.gpg | sudo apt-key add -

sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list <<EOF
deb https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/apt/ kubernetes-xenial main
EOF

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl
sudo apt-mark hold kubelet kubeadm kubectl

# 设置kubelet 开机自启动
systemctl enable kubelet
初始化集群
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kubeadm init --kubernetes-version=1.18.0 \
--pod-network-cidr 152.16.0.0/16 \
--image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers

日志:

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W0525 14:53:34.914975    8467 configset.go:202] WARNING: kubeadm cannot validate component configs for API groups [kubelet.config.k8s.io kubeproxy.config.k8s.io]
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.18.0
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[WARNING Service-Docker]: docker service is not enabled, please run 'systemctl enable docker.service'
[WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
^C
root@ming:/home/ming# kubeadm init --kubernetes-version=1.18.0 \
> --pod-network-cidr 152.16.0.0/16 \
> --image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers
W0525 14:53:51.259525 8991 configset.go:202] WARNING: kubeadm cannot validate component configs for API groups [kubelet.config.k8s.io kubeproxy.config.k8s.io]
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.18.0
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[WARNING Service-Docker]: docker service is not enabled, please run 'systemctl enable docker.service'
[WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Starting the kubelet
[certs] Using certificateDir folder "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[certs] Generating "ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver" certificate and key
[certs] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [ming kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 172.23.50.141]
[certs] Generating "apiserver-kubelet-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/server" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [ming localhost] and IPs [172.23.50.141 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/peer" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [ming localhost] and IPs [172.23.50.141 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/healthcheck-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver-etcd-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "sa" key and public key
[kubeconfig] Using kubeconfig folder "/etc/kubernetes"
[kubeconfig] Writing "admin.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "kubelet.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "controller-manager.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "scheduler.conf" kubeconfig file
[control-plane] Using manifest folder "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-apiserver"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-controller-manager"
W0525 14:54:07.094575 8991 manifests.go:225] the default kube-apiserver authorization-mode is "Node,RBAC"; using "Node,RBAC"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-scheduler"
W0525 14:54:07.096371 8991 manifests.go:225] the default kube-apiserver authorization-mode is "Node,RBAC"; using "Node,RBAC"
[etcd] Creating static Pod manifest for local etcd in "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[wait-control-plane] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests". This can take up to 4m0s
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 24.002131 seconds
[upload-config] Storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.18" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[upload-certs] Skipping phase. Please see --upload-certs
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node ming as control-plane by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node ming as control-plane by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[bootstrap-token] Using token: 58pvbb.xkvn7l91zil7kofv
[bootstrap-token] Configuring bootstrap tokens, cluster-info ConfigMap, RBAC Roles
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to get nodes
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstrap-token] Creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[kubelet-finalize] Updating "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf" to point to a rotatable kubelet client certificate and key
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:

kubeadm join 172.23.50.141:6443 --token 58pvbb.xkvn7l91zil7kofv \
--discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:17780ec54bf6d118f95fa644b067504b3721fafdb95c8bd674c231192a763dfa

创建kubectl
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mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
kubectl get all
安装网络 calico
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kubectl apply -f https://docs.projectcalico.org/manifests/calico.yaml

执行日志:

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configmap/calico-config created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/bgpconfigurations.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/bgppeers.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/blockaffinities.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/clusterinformations.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/felixconfigurations.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/globalnetworkpolicies.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/globalnetworksets.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/hostendpoints.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/ipamblocks.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/ipamconfigs.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/ipamhandles.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/ippools.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/kubecontrollersconfigurations.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/networkpolicies.crd.projectcalico.org created
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/networksets.crd.projectcalico.org created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/calico-kube-controllers created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/calico-kube-controllers created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/calico-node created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/calico-node created
daemonset.apps/calico-node created
serviceaccount/calico-node created
deployment.apps/calico-kube-controllers created
serviceaccount/calico-kube-controllers created
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# 查看calico插件安装启动完毕 没有 
kubectl get pod --all-namespaces

运行成功的样子:

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NAMESPACE     NAME                                       READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system calico-kube-controllers-789f6df884-jjsxt 1/1 Running 0 2m41s
kube-system calico-node-pl5nm 1/1 Running 0 2m41s
kube-system coredns-7ff77c879f-26bcj 1/1 Running 0 6m23s
kube-system coredns-7ff77c879f-r9fr5 1/1 Running 0 6m23s
kube-system etcd-ming 1/1 Running 0 6m33s
kube-system kube-apiserver-ming 1/1 Running 0 6m33s
kube-system kube-controller-manager-ming 1/1 Running 0 6m33s
kube-system kube-proxy-c6f8v 1/1 Running 0 6m23s
kube-system kube-scheduler-ming 1/1 Running 0 6m33s
安装kubernetes-dashboard
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wget  https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.0.0-rc7/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml
# 修改service 的暴露方式 使用NodePort
vim recommended.yaml
# kind: Service
# apiVersion: v1
# metadata:
# labels:
# k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
# name: kubernetes-dashboard
# namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
# spec:
# type: NodePort
# ports:
# - port: 443
# targetPort: 8443
# nodePort: 30000
# selector:
# k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
# 启动 dashboard
kubectl create -f recommended.yaml
# namespace/kubernetes-dashboard created
# serviceaccount/kubernetes-dashboard created
# service/kubernetes-dashboard created
# secret/kubernetes-dashboard-certs created
# secret/kubernetes-dashboard-csrf created
# secret/kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder created
# configmap/kubernetes-dashboard-settings created
# role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
# clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
# rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
# clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
# deployment.apps/kubernetes-dashboard created
# service/dashboard-metrics-scraper created
# deployment.apps/dashboard-metrics-scraper created

访问: https://localhost:30000

获取token

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# 获取token 
kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard describe secret $(kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard get secret | grep dashboard-admin | awk '{print $1}')

20200525155126

如果报错如下:
权限不足:
20200525153933

新增权限:

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echo '
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
labels:
k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
name: dashboard-admin
namespace: kubernetes-dashboard' > dashboard-admin.yaml
kubectl create -f ./dashboard-admin.yaml

echo '
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
name: dashboard-admin-bind-cluster-role
labels:
k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
kind: ClusterRole
name: cluster-admin
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
name: dashboard-admin
namespace: kubernetes-dashboard' > dashboard-role.yaml
kubectl create -f ./dashboard-role.yaml
#重新获取token
kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard describe secret $(kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard get secret | grep dashboard-admin | awk '{print $1}')

20200525155747

重启服务器恢复K8s
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docker start $(docker ps -a | awk '{print $1}' |tail -n +2)

总结

网络上 大多是以centos 来举例 事实上ubuntu部署会比centos更加简单 因为版本迭代快 各种依赖、内核 都是最新的
使用kubeadm 部署一套单机环境 每什么大问题 主要还是配置好服务器 如关闭swap selinux等常规要求

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